Monthly Archives: September 2020

How To Calculate A Common Size Balance Sheet


One can’t ignore the ill effects of window dressing in financial statements, and sadly a standard size balance sheet fails to identify the same to provide the real positions of assets, liabilities, etc. A common size balance sheet is regarded as impractical since there is no approved standard proportion of each item to the total asset. It aids the reader of the statement to understand clearly the ratio or percentage of each item in the statement as a percentage of total assets of the company.

The most notable change occurred with selling and administrative expenses, which increased from 34.8 percent of sales in 2009 to 39.4 percent of sales in 2010. This in turn drove down operating income from 18.6 percent in 2009 to 14.4 percent in 2010. This also likely caused the decrease in income before taxes, income tax expense, and net income. Notice that PepsiCo has the highest net sales at $57,838,000,000 versus Coca-Cola at $35,119,000,000. Once converted to common-size percentages, however, we see that Coca-Cola outperforms PepsiCo in virtually every income statement category.

  • It displays all items as percentages of a common base figure rather than as absolute numerical figures.
  • Type the dollar figures for all the items you entered in column “A” into column “B,” just to the right of each item.
  • It is categorized as current liabilities on the balance sheet and must be satisfied within an accounting period.
  • You find that the target company has accounts receivable at 45 percent of its total assets, as compared to only 20 percent for your company.

The cash flow statement identifies where a company obtained and used cash during a specified period of time. Figure your balance sheet’s common-size percentages each accounting period and compare them with those of previous periods to identify any positive or negative trends. There isn’t an “industry standard” presentation, but typically, you would display a balance sheet with the actual numbers on the left, and the corresponding Certified Public Accountant percentages on the right. SolvencySolvency of a company means its ability to meet the long term financial commitments, continue its operation in the foreseeable future and achieve long term growth. It does not convey proper records during times of seasonal fluctuations in various components of assets, liabilities, etc. Therefore, it fails to provide the actual information to the financial users of the statements.

To elaborate, not only can a user effortlessly see how well the capital structure of a company is allocated, but they can also compare those percentages to other periods in time or to other companies. It also enables an analyst to compare companies of varied sizes irrespective of their size difference, which is in-built in the raw data. Analysis of the balance sheet is always done by comparing current assets and current liabilities, earnings and shareholder’s equity, debtors and creditors, and so on.

Comparative Income Statement With Vertical Analysis:

If the cost of goods sold amount is $780,000 it will be presented as 78% ($780,000 divided by sales of $1,000,000). If interest expense is $50,000 it will be presented as 5% ($50,000 divided by $1,000,000). The restated amounts result in a common-size income statement, since it can be compared to the income statement of a competitor of any size or to the industry’s percentages. Accounts PayableAccounts payable is the amount due by a business to its suppliers or vendors for the purchase of products or services. It is categorized as current liabilities on the balance sheet and must be satisfied within an accounting period. The composition of PepsiCo’s income statement remained relatively consistent from 2009 to 2010.

Shows the firm’s assets and liabilities and stockholders’ equity as a percentage of total assets, rather than in dollar amounts. Lists the firm’s income and expense items as a percentage of net sales, rather than in dollar amounts. Common-size analysis converts each line of financial statement data to an easily comparable amount measured as a percent. Income statement items are stated as a percent of net sales and balance sheet items are stated as a percent of total assets (or total liabilities and shareholders’ equity).

There is no mandatory format for a common size balance sheet, though percentages are nearly always placed to the right of the normal numerical results. This lesson focuses on vertical analysis, which is used to compare items in the same financial statement. After this lesson, you’ll be able to explain how to use the analysis for a balance sheet and income statement. A common-size balance sheet is an alternative form of the traditional balance sheet that uses percentages instead of dollar amounts. It helps business owners, investors and bankers compare companies of different sizes without revealing actual dollar amounts.

Common-size analysis allows for the evaluation of information from one period to the next within a company and between competing companies. Although common-size balance sheets are most typically utilized by internal management, they also provide useful information to external parties, including independent auditors. The most valuable aspect of a common size balance sheet is that it supports ease of comparability. The common size balance sheet shows the makeup of a company’s various assets and liabilities through the presentation of percentages, in addition to absolute dollar values.

Common Size Analysis Template

Although common size analysis is not as detailed as trend analysis using ratios, it does provide a simple way for financial managers to analyze financial statements. In the balance sheet, the common base item to which other line items are expressed is total assets, while in the income statement, it is total revenues. In conclusion, it can be said that a common size balance sheet facilitates an easy comparison of the year-on-year performance of the same company or comparison of different companies of varied sizes.

Common size cash flow statement can be built by stating each item in a cash flow statement as a percentage of revenue. Alternatively, each cash inflow can be stated as a percentage of total cash inflows and each cash outflow as a percentage of total cash outflows. In case the balance sheet of any particular company is not prepared year after year consistently. It will be misleading to perform any comparative study of the common size statement balance sheet. Term DebtLong-term debt is the debt taken by the company that gets due or is payable after one year on the date of the balance sheet.

It helps the investors determine the organization’s leverage position and risk level. Other current assets percentage increased from 3.3% to 6.7% of the total assets over the last 9 years. Cash and Cash equivalentsas a percentage of total assets increased substantially from 5.6% in 2008 to 8.1% in 2014. Financial ratios are a quick way to review a company’s financial performance and compare it with others.

She has worked as a financial writer and editor for several online small business publications since 2011, including’s Small Business section, The,, and A Southern California native, Cynthia received her Bachelor of Science degree in finance and business economics from USC. Financial performance measures how well a firm uses assets from operations and generates revenues. Current liabilities are a company’s debts or obligations that are due to be paid to creditors within one year. Michael Boyle is an experienced financial professional with more than 9 years working with financial planning, derivatives, equities, fixed income, project management, and analytics. Type the dollar figures for all the items you entered in column “A” into column “B,” just to the right of each item. First, work out the difference between the two numbers you are comparing.

You will also be introduced to horizontal and vertical balance sheet analysis. There are many methods that a business can use to compare its financial results to that of its competitors to see how successful that business is. In general, managers prefer expenses as a percent of net sales to decrease over time, and profit figures as a percent of net sales to increase over time. As you can see in Figure 13.5 “Common-Size Income Statement Analysis for “, Coca-Cola’s gross margin as a percent of net sales decreased from 2009 to 2010 (64.2 percent versus 63.9 percent). Income before taxes increased significantly from 28.6 percent in 2009 to 40.4 percent in 2010, again mainly due to a one-time gain of $4,978,000,000 in 2010. This caused net income to increase as well, from 22.0 percent in 2009 to 33.6 percent in 2010. In the expense category, cost of goods sold as a percent of net sales increased, as did other operating expenses, interest expense, and income tax expense.

For this reason, each major classification of account will equal 100%, as all smaller components will add up to the major account classification. For trend analysis, it’s useful to look at a company’s activity from one time period to the next. For example, inventory might be a much larger percentage of total assets this year, which could mean the company’s chosen slow-moving merchandise needs to match prices with the competition. Also, common-size balance sheets work very well for comparing a company to its competitors or to an industry standard. This type of analysis is often used when performing due diligence for an acquisition, a valuation or any other financial transaction. A company has $8 million in total assets, $5 million in total liabilities, and $3 million in total equity.

If cash is $8,000 then it will be presented as 2%($8,000 divided by $400,000). If the accounts payable are $88,000 they will be restated as 22% ($88,000 divided by $400,000). If owner’s equity is $240,000 it will be shown as 60% ($240,000 divided by $400,000).

Express The Following Comparative Income Statements In Common

A common-size balance sheet can also be compared to the average percentages for the industry. Common‐size analysis expresses each line item on a single year’s financial statement as a percent of one line item, which is referred to as a base amount. The base amount for the balance sheet is usually total assets (which is the same number as total liabilities plus stockholders’ equity), and for the income statement it is usually net sales or revenues.

For example, regardless of a company’s size, the advertising expense should be about 15 percent of sales for a given industry. The balance sheet is one of the three fundamental financial statements. The financial statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting. She is an expert in personal finance and taxes, and earned her Master of Science in Accounting at University of Central Florida. A basic vertical analysis needs an individual statement for a reporting period but comparative statements may be prepared to increase the usefulness of the analysis. Liquidity Position Of A CompanyLiquidity shows the ease of converting the assets or the securities of the company into the cash.

How To Create Common Size Financial Statements On Ms Excel

Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of past transactions or events. Walmart Inc.’s express the balance sheets in common-size percents current assets as a percentage of total assets decreased from 2019 to 2020 but then increased from 2020 to 2021 exceeding 2019 level.

How Do You Interpret Common Size Financial Statements?

Liquidity is the ability of the firm to pay off the current liabilities with the current assets it possesses. Debt-equity RatioThe debt to equity ratio is a representation of the company’s capital structure that determines the proportion of external liabilities to the shareholders’ equity.

Common-size statements are used primarily for comparative purposes so that firms of various sizes can be equated. If a company’s assets = liabilities + equity inventory is $100,000 and its total assets are $400,000 the inventory will be expressed as 25% ($100,000 divided by $400,000).

Importance Of Common Size Analysis

Evaluate the company’s efficiency and profitability by computing the following for 2015 and 2014. Calculate the company’s long term risk and capital structure positions at the end of 2015 and 2014 by computing the following ratios. It does not aid in making decisions because there isn’t any approved standard proportion regarding the composition of assets, liabilities, etc. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, what techniques are most popular and see examples of each. Companies use some assets to generate revenue while others are used for financing purposes.

Looking at their financial data can reveal their strategy and their largest expenses that give them a competitive edge over other comparable companies. For example, some companies may sacrifice margins to gain a large market share, which increases revenues at the expense of profit margins. Such a strategy allows the company to grow faster than comparable companies because they are more preferred by investors. By looking at this income statement, we can see that in 2017, the amount of money that the company invested in research and development (10%) and advertising (3%). The company also pays interest to the shareholders, which is 2% of the total revenue for the year. The net operating income or earnings after interest and taxes represent 10% of the total revenues, and it shows the health of the business’s core operating areas. The net income can be compared to the previous year’s net income to see how the company’s performance year-on-year.

Subtract the base period amount from the analysis period amount, divide the result by the analysis period amount, then multiply that amount by 100. Subtracting the base period amount from the analysis amount, then dividing the result by the base amount. Subtracting the base period amount from the analysis period amount, dividing the result by the base period amount, bookkeeping then multiplying that amount by 100. Subtracting the analysis period amount from the base period amount, dividing the result by the base period amount, then multiplying that amount by 100. Cynthia Gaffney has spent over 20 years in finance with experience in valuation, corporate financial planning, mergers & acquisitions consulting and small business ownership.

Read More